Let’s start this book review with a warning - I’m not about to be impartial. Andy Clarke is a bit of a hero for me. His earlier work, Transcending CSS, is literally the book that started my career in web development. It is why, to this day, CSS is my comfort zone.

The cover of Art Direction for the Web by Andy Clarke

Art Direction for the Web by Andy Clarke

Needless to say, when I heard that he was working on a new book, and it was on a topic that I found fascinating, I could hardly wait to get my hands on it.

(You can purchase it from Smashing Magazine here.)

I have to say, it was worth the wait.

The print edition

I opted to spring for the print edition of the book, and am very happy that I did. The production quality of the book is very high. Like other books that Smashing Magazine has produced, it has a very handy bookmark sewn into the spine. The paper feels like high quality stock, and the colors are vivid.

If you can, do purchase the print copy. You’ll be glad that you did - given the very visually orientated nature of the content, having the physical book will make understanding the content so much easier.

The book open to a couple of pages covering grids

A spread on grids from the book

Overall Structure

The book basically breaks down into three major parts:

  1. Discussing what art direction actually is, why it matters, and some historical examples of it.
  2. Going into how to approach art direction on the web in terms of design - and some of the most significant design elements at your disposal. Specifically there is a focus on grids, typography and imagery.
  3. Lastly, Andy Clarke covers developing for art direction, and here he covers CSS Grid, typography techniques, and new image treatment options now available to us in CSS.

All the while, he uses an example set of pages from a site about a fictional app which helps connect would be bank robbers with getaway drivers.

I found the overall flow of the book to be easy to follow - I never felt lost. It was clear to see, also, how an earlier piece would lead to a later piece.

What is Art Direction?

The first section of the book tries to explain what art direction is (because it’s not a straight forward concept), and gives some prominent historical examples.

This is all done to laid the groundwork for Clarke’s fundamental premise - that design on the web has become too generic, too much the same, and there is no good reason for that. We have tools at our disposal now that allow much more interesting design decisions, and we should embrace those possibilities.

Clarke puts forth that art direction is about understanding how you want to make a visitor/user of your site feel, and to think about how that can be expressed in terms of design. By making distinct design choices, you can make your product or site stand out and be memorable.

The book open to a spread discussing art directing images

A few pages on directing pictures.

Diving into design

The next part of the book - and the meatiest - is a dive into design as it pertains to the web. Some of the early groundwork may be considered basic, but Clarke is also trying to explain the concepts to a wide audience. I for one appreciate the effort he put forth to build up context. You have to explain what a grid is before you can go into the different kinds of grids.


And there is a lot of discussion about grids. For a good reason too - this is probably the single element of design on the web that has become so generic.

Clarke dives headlong into showing wildly different layout options - often using the same example content and showing it in different configurations. This gives you a sense of the impact that layout can have. You won’t find a “hero image spanning the top of a page with three product icons in a row underneath” here.

I think this part really is the heart of the book - Clarke is really trying to get everyone to think of all of the possibilities before us, rather than simply settling on conventions.

He then goes into two more areas of design - typography, and dealing with imagery.


With typography, he shows the outwardly visible personality that different typefaces can give to content. One of the more interesting concepts for me in the entire book was that of scale. In typographic terms, scale is the ratio by which typefaces increase / decrease in size across elements.

If there are subtle jumps in size between, say, an <h3> and an <h2>, that would be said to have a shallower scale. If there is sharper increase in size, however, that is said to have a steeper scale.

This ratio will translate into a personality for your typography - a shallower scale is more restrained and conservative, while a steeper scale is more energetic and casual.


Clarke also delves into the different way imagery can be presented in our layouts. It’s not just an image that we shove into an empty rectangle. Imagery needs to interact and balance with our written content. And they can interact in very interesting ways.

Here Clarke goes into examples of what I think are some of the most interesting layouts in the entire book. Half-up, full page height imagery that is arresting to the viewer.

I will also mention that I was very happy to see that in his examples, he showed not just a large desktop layout, but also how the same image could be used with intention across multiple breakpoints to maintain it’s impact. This is the work of someone who really is considering the medium.

The book open to two ages covering development of typography

Developing typography in the name of art direction

Developing for Art Direction

The last large section of the book was devoted to the actual technologies and techniques needed to bring the earlier design ideas to life. And here you see why he structured his design writing as he did.

Layout techniques

Clarke spends quite a bit of time going over CSS Grid, and for good reason. CSS Grid is one of the most exciting advances in CSS in a long time, and it unlocks so much potential for design. We simply need to use it. Clarke draws a connection between writing a CSS Grid layout in code, and how it produces one of his example layouts.

He also covers Flexbox, which still very much has a place in modern CSS layouts, even with the emergence of Grid.

Typography techniques

At this point Clarke dives into typography, and first covers the very under-utilized CSS columns. He also covers various ways of achieving vertical type layout, as well as decorative typography.

Picture techniques

This was also one of the most interesting sections of the book for me. Clarke covers a number of techniques that I’ve heard of before, but haven’t really explored. His examples presented actual use cases I could grok, and now understand the power of these ideas. Namely:

  • object-fit and object-position
  • CSS shapes - particularly creating shapes from alpha channeled images
  • CSS clipping paths - also, understanding how to do this from an alpha channelled image

What works so wonderfully in this book is how he gives very striking, visual examples that make it clear how interesting the techniques can be.

One thing I wished for

Overall, this is a great book. Don’t get me wrong. But there was one thing I was really hoping Clarke would have touched on, but didn’t in this book. This has more to do with my expectation going into the book rather than anything he did wrong as an author.

I was really hoping to have the book get into CSS Custom Properties. I think that they have a huge potential to influence art direction as it pertains to the web, and I was anxious to read what Clarke had to say on the subject.

Alas, that was one topic he was not able to get to. Being that the book already clocks in at 300+ pages, I can understand that you have to draw the line somewhere. Who knows? Maybe there was material on this that ended up on the editing room floor.

It also gives me a potential topic for a blog post (or series of posts). I’ve been using them on this site, and have already learned a few things.


This is another fantastic book from Andy Clarke. You can really tell how passionate he is about the subject, and how excited he is by the recent advances in CSS that allow for more interesting design.

I think this book is definitely for designers, and front end developers, but could also be shared with anyone who has an opinion about how something on the web communicates with it’s audience.